A technique for removing large and/or dense stones and staghorn stones.
PNL is done via a port created by puncturing the kidney through the skin and enlarging the access port to 1 cm (about 3/8 inch) in diameter. There is no surgical incision.
PNL is done under anesthesia and real-time live x-ray control (fluoroscopy). Because x-rays are involved, a super-specialist in radiology (an interventional radiologist) may perform this part of the procedure.
The urologist (an endourologist, another super-specialist) then inserts instruments via this port into the kidney to break up the stone and remove most of the debris from the stone.
- Interventional radiologist
A radiologist who uses image guidance methods to gain access to vessels and organs. Interventional radiologists can treat certain conditions through the skin (percutaneously) that might otherwise require surgery. The technology includes the use of balloons, catheters, microcatheters, stents, and therapeutic embolization (deliberately clogging up a blood vessel). The specialty of interventional radiology overlaps with […]
A machine that is used to shatter kidney stones and gallstones by physical or other means, such as with shock waves.
A pigment used as a test for acidity and alkalinity. Litmus paper turns red in acid and blue in an alkaline solution. Litmus is prepared from lichens like Roccella tinctoria. Figuratively, a litmus test is a decision in which a single factor is the determinant.
- Litmus test
Litmus. 2. Figuratively, any test in which a single factor is decisive.
- Little lady of Flores
The first skeleton, that of a diminuitive female, found on the Indonesian island of Flores belonging to a new human-like species — Homo floresiensis.