Protein (15-45 mg/dl)
Glucose (50-75 mg/dl)
Cell count (0-5 mononuclear cells)
Initial pressure (70-180 mm)
These normal values can be altered by injury or disease of the brain, spinal cord or adjacent tissues. The values are routinely evaluated during examination of the spinal fluid obtained from the lumbar puncture. Additionally, spinal fluid is tested for infection in the microbiology laboratory.
Spinal fluid obtained from the lumbar puncture can be used to diagnose many important diseases such as bleeding around the brain; increased pressure from hydrocephalus; inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, or adjacent tissues (encephalitis, meningitis); tumors of brain or spinal cord, etc. Sometimes spinal fluid can indicate diseases of the immune system, such as multiple sclerosis.
When spinal fluid is removed during an LP, the risks include headache, brain herniation, bleeding, and infection. Each of these complications are uncommon with the exception of headache, which can appear from hours to up to a day after LP. Headaches occur less frequently when the patient remains lying flat 1-3 hours after the procedure. The benefits of the LP depend upon the exact situation but an LP can provide lifesaving information.
Little People of America. The abbreviation also for the left pulmonary artery.
Lower segment cesarean section.
Lysergic acid diethylamide is an hallucinogen. LSD is an abbreviation of the German term Lysergsaure-Diathylamid for lysergic acid diethylamide. LSD is considered the typical hallucinogen and the characteristics of its action and effects apply to the other hallucinogens, including mescaline, psilocybin, and ibogaine. LSD was discovered in 1938. It is manufactured from lysergic acid, which […]
An oily or slippery substance. A vaginal lubricant may be helpful for women who feel pain during intercourse because of vaginal dryness.
- Lucid dreaming
The process of being aware that one is dreaming. Some researchers believe that in lucid dreaming, the individual may be able to change the outcome of the dream or control their degree of participation in the imaginary (dream) environment. Lucid dreams have been described as arising from either the sleeping or waking state. A number […]