A muscle disease first identified in 1993, macrophagic myofasciitis is named for the findings seen in tissue from muscle biopsies, namely an abnormal infiltrate surrounding muscle tissue of specialized immune cells called “macrophages,” a type of immune cell important to swallowing and destroying microorganisms. They also assist other immune cells in the body’s response to invading organisms.
The cause of macrophagic myofasciitis is not known. Suspected causes include environmental factors, which may be toxins or infections.
Muscle pain is the most frequent symptom. This can be localized to the limbs or be more diffuse. Other symptoms include joint pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, fever, and muscle tenderness.
The disorder is associated with an altered immune system in some, but not all, patients. A significant number of patients had taken chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for malaria; these drugs are known to inhibit the secretion from macrophages of a cell messenger molecule called interleukin. The cause of macrophagic myofasciitis has not been identified. A unique material that accumulates within the affected macrophages has been seen on electron microscopy but this material has yet to be characterized. Most patients have responded to treatment with antibiotics and/or steroids within a few days or weeks.
Large enough to be seen with the naked eye, as opposed to microscopic. For example, a macroscopic tumor is big enough to be seen without the aid of a microscope. From the Greek macro- (large, long) + -scopic, from skopos (aim, mark).
An overly large body. A child with macrosomia has significant overgrowth, which can represent a hormone imbalance.
Pertaining to the macrovasculature, the portion of the vasculature of the body comprising the larger vessels, those with an internal diameter of more than 100 microns. By contrast to microvascular. The term macrovascular is somewhat less used than microvascular. There is a field of microvascular surgery. Macrovacular surgery is usually simply called vascular surgery.
- Macrovascular disease
Disease of the large blood vessels, including the coronary arteries, the aorta, and the sizable arteries in the brain and in the limbs. Macrovascular disease is by contrast to microvascular disease. In persons with diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia (assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin level) is related to the development of microvascular disease; however, the relation of glycosylated […]
A macula is a small spot. A macula on the skin is a small flat spot while the macula in the eye is a small spot where vision is keenest in the retina. The macula of the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue lining the interior of the back of the eye, is also known […]