At different points along the dogs’ digestive tracts, the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1848-1936) surgically created pockets (“Pavlov pouches”) from which he could obtain secretions, the aim being to study the physiology of the digestive tract. He did so from the salivary glands down to the stomach, liver and pancreas with considerable success and in 1904 (the 4th year it was awarded) he received the Nobel Prize for “his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged.”
- Pavlovian conditioning
A method to cause a reflex response or behavior by training with repetitive action. The Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov conditioned dogs to respond in what proved to be a predictable manner. For example, when he customarily rang a bell before feeding them, the dogs would begin to salivate whenever the bell rang. The principles […]
One in a family of Pax genes involved in regulating embryonic development at the level of transcription. The Pax3 gene is on chromosome 2 in band q35. It encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor that is expressed in the early embryo. Mutation of Pax3 leads to Waardenburg syndrome with a wide bridge of the nose; pigmentary […]
Although PC is usually taken to mean personal computer, in the biomedical arena PC also stands for protein C, phosphocreatine, et al.
Commonly used abbreviation for patient-controlled analgesia. Analgesia simply means relief of pain. PCA is a method by which the patient controls the amount of pain medicine (analgesia) they receive. There are a number of different PCA systems. In the classic PCA system, the patient receives a preset dose of morphine by pressing a button on […]
Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed.