Infection of the lungs by Yersina pestis, the bacterial agent that causes the plague, a disease of animals (rodents and their fleas) and humans.
The first signs of the pneumonic plague are fever, headache, weakness, and cough productive of bloody or watery sputum. The pneumonia progresses over 2 to 4 days and may cause septic shock and, without early treatment, death.
Person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague occurs through respiratory droplets, which can only infect those who have face-to-face contact with the person who is ill.
Early treatment of pneumonic plague is essential. Several antibiotics are effective, including streptomycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol.
There is no vaccine against plague but prophylactic antibiotic treatment for 7 days will protect persons who have had face-to-face contact with infected patients.
The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) has classified Yersina pestis as a high-priority (Category A) bioterrorism agent.
- Pneumonitis, radiation
Inflammation of the lungs as a result of radiation. Although the radiation can be from various sources including accidents, today it is usually from radiation therapy. Radiation pneumonitis typically occurs after radiation treatments for cancers within the chest or breast. Acute (early) radiation pneumonitis usually manifests itself 4 to 12 weeks after completion of radiation […]
Air or other gas in the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium).
Free air in the chest outside the lung. Pneumothorax can occur spontaneously, follow a fractured rib or other trauma, occur in the wake of chest surgery, or be deliberately induced in order to collapse the lung.
- PNL (percutaneous nephrolithotripsy)
A technique for removing large and/or dense stones and staghorn stones. PNL is done via a port created by puncturing the kidney through the skin and enlarging the access port to 1 cm (about 3/8 inch) in diameter. There is no surgical incision. PNL is done under anesthesia and real-time live x-ray control (fluoroscopy). Because […]
- PNS (peripheral nervous system)
That portion of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. The other is the central nervous system (CNS) which is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The nerves in the peripheral nervous system […]