A tiny colony of DNA, about one micron in diameter. The word “polony” is a contraction of “polymerase colony.” To create polonies, a solution containing dispersed DNA fragments is poured onto a microscope slide. An enzyme called DNA polymerase is added. It causes each fragment to copy itself repeatedly, creating millions of polonies, each dot containing only copies of the original fragment of DNA. The polonies are then exposed to a series of chemically-labeled DNA base probes that are fluorescent and light up when run through a scanning machine, identifying each nucleotide base in the DNA fragment. In addition to its application to DNA sequencing, polony technology can be used to study the transcriptome (RNA content) of cells and to determine differences in genome sequence between different individuals.
Short form for polymorphonuclear leukocyte, a type of white blood cell.
- Polyarteritis nodosa
An autoimmune disease that is characterized by spontaneous inflammation of the arteries (arteritis) and can affect any organ of the body. Polyarteritis nodosa most commonly affects muscles, joints, intestines, nerves, kidneys, and skin. Inflammation of the arteries can lead to inadequate blood supply and permanent damage to organs. Typically, polyarteritis nodosa is treated with medications […]
Involving many joints, as opposed to monoarticular (affecting just one joint).
Derived from different cells. As opposed to monoclonal.
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Abbreviated PAH. A hydrocarbon (a molecule made up of hydrogen and carbon) containing two or more closed rings of atoms. PAHs are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutant. Exposure usually occurs by breathing air contaminated by wild fires or coal tar, or by eating foods that have been grilled. Other sources include industrial processes, transportation, […]