An abnormal PSA result following therapy may indicate recurrence of the prostate cancer.
PSA is not specific to prostate cancer. Other diseases can cause an elevated PSA. The most frequent is benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), an increase in the size of the prostate that typically occurs with aging. Infection of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is another relatively common cause of an elevated PSA. Other confounding conditions that can increase PSA include ischemia or infarction, urethral instrumentation, and urinary retention, and prostate biopsy.
The PSA test has other limitations. A small proportion of prostate cancers do not produce a detectable increase in blood PSA, even with advanced disease. Many early cancers will also not produce enough PSA to cause a significantly abnormal blood level. It is therefore important not to rely only on blood PSA testing. The most useful additional test is a physical prostate exam known as the digital rectal exam (DRE).
- PSC (primary sclerosing cholangitis)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis.
- Pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy
A rare genetic disease that is passed on via an autosomal recessive gene. It is characterized by abnormal lysosomal enzyme transport in cells of mesenchymal origin, causing elevated lysosomal enzymes in body fluids and tissues. Diagnosis is by blood test. There is currently no treatment for this disorder. Also known as mucolipidosis III.
- Pseudoexfoliation syndrome
An eye condition that often leads to glaucoma. Called the pseudoexfoliation syndrome because deposits on the surface of the lens look like flakes of dandruff, as if the lens capsule has exfoliated (shed the flakes). It is also called exfoliation syndrome.
A severe form of depression that results from a progressive brain disorder in which cognitive changes mimic those of dementia.
Inflammation of the joints that is caused by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate crystals, resulting in arthritis, most commonly of the knees, wrists, shoulders, hips, and ankles. Pseudogout usually affects only one or a few joints at a time. True gout is due to a different type of crystal, which is formed by the precipitation of […]