Invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. Ultraviolet radiation can burn the skin and cause skin cancer.
Ultraviolet radiation is made up of three types of rays — ultraviolet A, ultraviolet B, and ultraviolet C. Although ultraviolet C is the most dangerous type of ultraviolet light in terms of its potential to harm life on earth, it cannot penetrate earth’s protective ozone layer. Therefore, it poses no threat to human, animal or plant life on earth.
Ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B, on the other hand, do penetrate the ozone layer in attenuated form and reach the surface of the planet. Because ultraviolet A is weaker than ultraviolet B, scientists long considered ultraviolet B the sole culprit in causing skin cancer in persons with a history of sunburn and repeated overexposure to ultraviolet radiation. Recent research, however, has also implicated ultraviolet A as a possible cause of skin cancer. Ultraviolet B is more likely than ultraviolet A to cause sunburn, but ultraviolet A passes further into the skin. Ultraviolet B can cause melanoma and other types of skin cancer. Ultraviolet A may add to skin damage that can lead to cancer. For this reason, skin and cancer specialists recommend that people use sunscreens that block both kinds of radiation — ultraviolet A and B.
In addition to natural light from the sun, artificial light from tanning lamps contains ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B. Electric arc lamps can also generate ultraviolet light to heat furnaces for melting and to enable motion-picture projectors to show movies.
Though ultraviolet light can be harmful, it can also maintain health. When ultraviolet light strikes human skin, it triggers the production of vitamin D, which promotes the growth of bones.
- Radical dissection
Surgical removal of not only affected tissue, but also nearby tissue that may be covertly affected.
- Radical neck dissection
Often called a ‘radical neck,’ a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a tumor from the neck with an additional margin of seemingly normal tissue of at least 2 cm together with the removal of the lymph nodes from the neck.
- Radical prostatectomy
A surgery procedure that removes the entire prostate gland plus some surrounding tissue. During the procedure the pelvic lymph nodes may also be sampled for a biopsy. The goal is to remove the cancer entirely and prevent its spread to other parts of the body.
Any disease of the spinal nerve roots and spinal nerves. Radiculopathy is characterized by pain that seems to radiate from the spine, extending outward to cause symptoms away from the source of the spinal nerve root irritation. Causes of radiculopathy include deformities of the discs between the vertebrae. Patients with diabetes can be affected by […]
- Radio frequency identification
(RFID) A system for remotely storing and retrieving data. An RFID tag may be a little sticker that can be attached to an object. The tag contains an antenna that enables it to receive and respond to a radiofrequency query from an RFID device called a transceiver. Most RFID tags in use today do not […]