1. In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cell) that selectively receives and binds a specific substance. There are many receptors. There is a receptor for (insulin; there is a receptor for low-density lipoproteins (LDL); etc. To take an example, the receptor for substance P, a molecule that acts as a messenger for the sensation of pain, is a unique harbor on the cell surface where substance P docks. Without this receptor, substance P cannot dock and cannot deliver its message of pain. Variant forms of nuclear hormone receptors mediate processes such as cholesterol metabolism and fatty acid production. Some hormone receptors are implicated in diseases such as diabetes and certain types of cancer. A receptor called PXR appears to jump-start the body’s response to unfamiliar chemicals and may be involved in drug-drug interactions.
2. In neurology, a terminal of a sensory nerve that receives and responds to stimuli.
- Receptor, chemokine
A molecule that receives a chemokine and associated proteins (chemokine docks). Several chemokine receptors are essential co-receptors for the HIV virus.
- Receptor, T-cell
A molecule on the surface of T-lymphocytes (T-cells) for recognizing specific antigens (foreign substances or microbes such as viruses).
- Receptor, visual
The layer of rods and cones, the visual cells, of the retina.
A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent. The individuals with a double dose of the mutated gene are called homozygotes. Their parents, each with a single dose of the mutated gene, appear normal and are called heterozygotes, or gene carriers. There […]
- Recessive, autosomal
Canavan disease of the brain Congenital neutropenia, a blood condition Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, a birth defect Familial Mediterranean fever with attacks of fever and pain Fanconi anemia, a progressive blood disorder with a high risk of leukemia Gaucher disease (a common genetic disease of people of Jewish descent) Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a series of carbohydrate storage […]