8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. The spinal cord and the brain constitute the central nervous system. The spinal cord consists of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain. Like the brain, the spinal cord is covered by three connective-tissue envelopes called the meninges. The space between the outer and middle envelopes is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear colorless fluid that cushions the spinal cord against jarring shock. Also known simply as the cord.
- Spinal cord compression
The act of exerting an abnormal amount of pressure on the spinal cord. Compression of the spinal cord may, for instance, be due to a fracture of the spine or a tumor pressing on the spinal cord.
- Spinal cord disease in diabetes
Involvement of the spinal cord in people with diabetes. Most of the neurologic attention in diabetes mellitus has focused on distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) — abnormalities of the peripheral nerves, in particular, the nerves to the feet and hands. However, the nerve damage in diabetes can be more generalized and involve the spinal cord. The […]
- Spinal cord injury
Trauma or damage to the spinal cord, the major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies within the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge. The spinal cord and the brain constitute the central nervous system. The spinal cord consists of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and […]
- Spinal fusion
A surgical procedure in which two or more of the vertebrae in the spine are united together so that motion no longer occurs between them. Spinal fusion may be done to treat a number of conditions, including scoliosis, deformity, fracture, and disc disease. Bone grafts are usually placed around the section of the spine to […]
- Spinal muscular atrophy
SMA4. The gene called SMN (SMN = survival of motor neuron) is on chromosome 5 in region 5q11-13. Unaffected individuals have both the SMN gene and a copy of the SMN gene arranged in tandem on each chromosome 5. These are referred to as SMNT (telomeric copy of SMN) and SMNC (centromeric copy of SMN). […]