Surgical sterilization is a contraceptive option for people who do not want children in the future. It is considered permanent because reversal requires major surgery that is often unsuccessful.
Female sterilization blocks the fallopian tubes so the egg cannot travel to the uterus. The procedure, including tubal ligation is done by various surgical techniques, usually under general anesthesia.
Complications are rare but can include infection, hemorrhage (bleeding), and problems related to the use of general anesthesia.
Male sterilization, called vasectomy, involves sealing, tying or cutting a man’s vas deferens, the tube which otherwise would carry the sperm from the testicle to the penis.
Vasectomy is a relatively short operation, usually takes under 30 minutes, and carries the risk of surgical complications such as bleeding or infection.
- Sternal rib
The lower five ribs do not directly connect to the sternum and are known as false ribs. The upper three false ribs connect to the costal cartilages of the ribs just above them. The last two false ribs, however, usually have no ventral attachment (no anchor at all in front) and are called floating, fluctuating […]
the manubrium (the upper segment of the sternum, a flattened, roughly triangular bone), the corpus (body) of the sternum, and the xiphoid process (the little tail of the sternum than points down). These sections of the sternum arise as separate bones, and they may fuse partially or completely with one another. Also known as breastbone.
Sneezing; the sound of sneezing. When we sneeze, air is expelled with force from the nose (and from the mouth, if it is open) due to a spasmodic contraction of the chest muscles and diaphragm. A sneeze is often triggered by irritation of the mucous membrane of the nose or less often by a bright […]
One of a large group of chemical substances classified by a specific carbon structure. Steroids include drugs used to relieve swelling and inflammation, such as prednisone and cortisone; vitamin D; and some sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol.
- Steroid abuse
Use of substances containing steroids to increase muscle mass. Steroids can have many side effects when misused, including psychiatric problems, liver tumors, reduction in the size of male genitals, sterility, and heart damage.