The most common of the focal dystonias, a state of excessive or inadequate muscle tone in the muscles in the neck that control the position of the head. Torticollis can cause the head to twist and turn to one side. The head may also be pulled forward or backward. Torticollis can occur at any age, although most individuals first experience symptoms in middle age. It often begins slowly, and it usually reaches a plateau. Also known as spasmodic torticollis.
- Torticollis, congenital
A deformity of the neck that is present at birth. Congenital torticollis is due to shortening of the neck muscles. Congenital torticollis tilts the head to the side on which the neck muscles are shortened, so that the chin points to the other side. The shortened neck muscles are principally supplied by the spinal accessory […]
An act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person, for a purpose such as obtaining information or a confession, punishment, intimidation or coercion, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind. Survivors of torture often suffer from physical and psychological symptoms and disabilities. There […]
- Torus fracture
A fracture in which one side of a bone bends but does not actually break. Torus fractures normally heal on their own within a month, with rest and disuse. Also known as incomplete fracture or buckle fracture.
- Total hip replacement
Surgery in which the diseased ball and socket of the hip joint are completely removed and replaced with artificial materials. A metal ball with a stem (a prosthesis) is inserted into the femur (thigh bone) and an artificial plastic cup socket is placed in the acetabulum (a “cup-shaped” part of the pelvis. The prosthesis may […]
- Total hysterectomy
Complete surgical removal of the uterus including the cervix. Also known as complete ‘hysterectomy.