Murine typhus, an acute infectious disease with fever, headache, and rash, all quite similar to, but milder than, epidemic typhus. It is caused by a related microorganism, Rickettsia typhi (mooseri), transmitted to humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis). The animal reservoir includes rats, mice and other rodents. Murine typhus occurs sporadically worldwide but is more prevalent in congested rat-infested urban areas.
Also known as endemic typhus, and rat-flea typhus.
- Typist's cramp
A dystonia that affects the muscles of the hand and sometimes the forearm and only occurs during handwriting. Similar focal dystonias have also been called writer’s cramp, pianist’s cramp, musician’s cramp, and golfer’s cramp.
A genetic disorder involving the metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine characterized by abnormally high levels of tyrosine in blood (hypertyrosinemia) and urine (tyrosinuria). There are several different forms of tyrosinemia. The classic form, tyrosinemia type I, is due to deficiency of an enzyme called fumarylacetoacetic hydrolase, the last enzyme in the tyrosine pathway. Although […]
- Tyrosinemia type I
A metabolic genetic disease characterized by abnormally high levels of amino acid tyrosine in blood (hypertyrosinemia) and urine (tyrosinuria) due to deficiency of an enzyme called fumarylacetoacetic hydrolase, the last enzyme in the tyrosine pathway. Tyrosinemia type I is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder. The disease causes cirrhosis of the liver before 6 months […]
- Tyrosinemia type II
A metabolic genetic disease due to deficiency of the enzyme tyrosine transaminase. The disease is characterized by the deposition of crystals of tyrosine in the skin and eyes. Thickened areas (keratoses) on the palms and soles become painful and ulcers develop in the cornea. There is often mental retardation in tyrosinemia type II. It is […]
- Tzanck test
The examination of fluid from a bulla (a blister) in search of Tzanck cells characteristic of varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster, herpes simplex, and pemphigus vulgaris. Named for a Russian dermatologist Arnault Tzanck (1886-1954).