Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that normally has an amber color. The average amount of urine excreted in 24 hours is between 5 to 8 cups or 40 and 60 ounces. Chemically, urine is mainly a watery solution of salt and substances called urea and uric acid. Normally, it contains about 960 parts water to 40 parts solid matter. Abnormally, it may contain sugar (in diabetes), albumin (a protein, as in some forms of kidney disease), bile pigments (as in jaundice), or abnormal quantities of one or another of its normal components.
- Urine blood
there is so little blood that it cannot be seen without magnification. Hematuria, whether it be gross or microscopic, is abnormal and should be further investigated. It may or may not be accompanied by pain. Painful hematuria can be caused by a number of disorders, including infections and stones in the urinary tract. Painless hematuria […]
- Urine hemoglobin
acute nephritis (acute glomerulonephritis), burns, kidney cancer, malaria, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (dark urine in the morning that lightens up during the day), the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), pyelonephritis, sickle cell anemia (or any other type of hemolytic anemia), a transfusion reaction (due to an immune response against transfused red blood cells), thrombotic thrombocytic purpura (TTP), and […]
- Urine infection in children
Urinary tract infection in children.
- Urine pH
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of urine. Checking urine pH is part of the routine urinalysis. Factors that affect urine pH include vomiting, diarrhea, lung disease, hormones, kidney function, and urinary tract infection.
- UROD deficiency
The familial form of porphyria cutanea tarda — is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with males and females affected in multiple generations. The enzyme UROD is reduced in all tissues. The sporadic form of porphyria cutanea tarda — is more common. The enzyme UROD is only reduced in the liver. It appears sporadically in […]