Vocal cord paralysis
Inability of one or both vocal folds (vocal cords) to move. The paralysis is usually due to damage to the nerves going to the vocal cords or due to damage to the brain itself.
In more technical terms, vocal cord paralysis may result from lesions in the nucleus ambiguus or its supranuclear tracts in the brain, the main trunk of the vagus nerve, or the recurrent laryngeal nerves (which supply the larynx. Intracranial (brain) tumors, strokes, and demyelinating diseases can cause nucleus ambiguus paralysis. Neoplasms at the base of the skull and trauma of the neck cause paralysis of the vagus nerve. Recurrent laryngeal paralysis is caused by neck or thoracic lesions (such as aortic aneurysm; mitral stenosis; tumors of the thyroid gland, esophagus, lung, or mediastinal structures), trauma, thyroidectomy, neurotoxins (such as lead), infections (such as diphtheria), cervical spine injury or surgery, or viral illness.
- Vohwinkel syndrome
A genetic disorder characterized by hearing loss and thickened skin, particularly on the knuckles. The sensorineural hearing is mild-to-moderate in degree. The thickening of the skin (hyperkeratosis) can be “mutilating” and cause autoamputation of the digits. The syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. It is caused by mutation in the GJB2 gene (connexin […]
- Voice box
The voice box, or larynx, is the portion of the respiratory (breathing) tract containing the vocal cords which produce sound. It is located between the pharynx and the trachea. The larynx, also called the voice box, is a 2-inch-long, tube-shaped organ in the neck. We use the larynx when we breathe, talk, or swallow. Its […]
- Voice disorder
Voice disorder is characterized by the abnormal production and/or absences of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration, which is inappropriate for an individual’s age and/or sex.
To urinate. The term void is also sometimes used to indicate the elimination of solid waste (defecation).
- Voiding cystourethrogram
A test done to examine the bladder and urethra while the bladder fills and empties. A radiopaque liquid (that can be seen on x-ray) is placed in the bladder through a catheter. The bladder is filled until the patient urinates. Radiographs (x-rays) are usually taken before, during, and after voiding. This test can reveal abnormalities […]