Fauci AS, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th edition. McGraw Hill. 2011
A substance found in caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and encountered in tea, coffee, and the colas. Chemically, xanthine is a purine. There is a genetic disease of xanthine metabolism, xanthinuria, due to deficiency of an enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, needed to process xanthine in the body. Unchecked, xanthinuria can lead to kidney stone formation and urinary […]
A rare metabolic disorder that is caused by lack of an enzyme needed to process xanthine, an alkaloid found in caffeine; theobromine; theophylline; and related substances. Unchecked, xanthinuria can lead to kidney stone formation. Treatment involves avoiding foods and drinks that contain xanthine derivatives, such as coffee, tea, and cola. Classic xanthinuria is inherited in […]
Yellowish firm nodules in the skin frequently indicating underlying disease, such as diabetes, disorder of fats (lipid disorder or hyperlipidemia), or other conditions. A xanthoma is a kind of harmless growth of tissue. Under the microscope, a xanthoma can be seen to be composed of lipid-laden foam cells. These cells, termed histiocytes, contain lipid material […]
- Xanthoma tendinosum
Xanthoma that clusters around tendons and is associated with lipid disorders, including chronically elevated blood cholesterol levels.
- Xanthoma tuberosum
Xanthoma that clusters near joints and is associated with lipid disorders, cirrhosis of the liver, and thyroid disorders.