The bacteria that causes the bubonic plague which in the year 541 (as the Black Death) and later in the Middle Ages decimated Europe. The effects of the plague are described in the nursery rhyme “We all fall down.”
Y. pestis mainly infects rats and other rodents which are the prime reservoir for the bacteria. Fleas are the prime vectors carrying the bacteria from one species to another. They bite rodents infected with Y. pestis, then they bite people and so transmit the disease to them.
Transmission of the plague to people can also occur from eating infected animals such as squirrels. Once someone has the plague, they can transmit it to another person via aerosol droplets.
Plague occurs in the U.S. It is treatable with antibiotics but, if not treated promptly, can promptly lead to death.
Yersinia is named after the Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre-Emile-Jean Yersin (1863-1943) who identified it in 1894 after a trip to Hong Kong looking for the agent that was killing thousands of people in southern China. The bacteria was also discovered at the same time by the Japanese bacteriologist Shibasaburo Kitasako.
Use separate cutting boards for meat and other foods. Carefully clean all cutting boards, counter-tops, and utensils with soap and hot water after preparing raw meat. Dispose of animal feces in a sanitary manner.
A relaxing form of exercise that was developed in India and involves assuming and holding postures that stretch the limbs and muscles, doing breathing exercises, and using meditation techniques to calm the mind. Yoga appears to have benefits for increasing physical flexibility and reducing internal feelings of stress. Yoga may be recommended as an alternative […]
A dairy product made by fermented milk with one or more bacterial cultures. It has been used to repopulate the normal bacterial flora of the intestines after antibiotic therapy and associated diarrhea and for treating and preventing vaginal yeast and bacterial infections.
- Yolk sac
Not all yolk has to do with birds’ eggs. Human embryos have a yolk sac, too. The human yolk sac is a membrane outside the embryo that is connected by a tube (the yolk stalk) though the umbilical opening to the embryo’s midgut. The yolk sac serves as an early site for the formation of […]
- Yolk stalk
most commonly as a finger-like protrusion from the small intestine known as Meckelis diverticulum. Found in 2 to 4 percent of people, Meckelis diverticulum may become inflamed (much like the appendix) and require surgical removal. Also known as the omphalomesenteric duct, umbilical duct, or vitelline duct.