A sex chromosome in certain animals, such as chickens, turkeys, and moths. In humans, males are XY and females XX, but in animals with a Z chromosome, males are ZZ and females are WZ.
The time immediately after the delivery of a baby. (In Latin a “puerpera” is a woman in childbirth since “puer” means child and “parere” means to give birth.) Puerperal fever is childbirth (or childbed) fever due to an infection usually of the placental site within the uterus. If that infection involves the bloodstream, it constitutes […]
Clonote: The first cell produced by the combination of a nucleus and an enucleated ovum that launches the process of somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). As opposed to the zygote, the first cell resulting from fertilization. The term “clonote” was coined to connote the fundamental difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. IVF (and the […]
Clostridium: A group of anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that thrive in the absence of oxygen). There are 100+ species of Clostridium. They include, for examples, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens (also called Clostridium welchii), and Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of infection of the large bowel (the colon) in the US […]
- Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum: A group of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in the soil that grow best in anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) conditions. The bacteria form heat-resistant spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum toxin, a highly potent […]