Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection CSMA/CD
Short for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection, a set of rules determining how network devices respond when two devices attempt to use a data channel simultaneously (called a collision). Standard Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD to physically monitor the traffic on the line at participating stations. If no transmission is taking place at the time, the particular station can transmit. If two stations attempt to transmit simultaneously, this causes a collision, which is detected by all participating stations. After a random time interval, the stations that collided attempt to transmit again. If another collision occurs, the time intervals from which the random waiting time is selected are increased step by step. This is known as exponential back off.
CSMA/CD is a type of contention protocol. Networks using the CSMA/CD procedure are simple to implement but do not have deterministic transmission characteristics. The CSMA/CD method is internationally standardized in IEEE 802.3 and ISO 8802.3.
- Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
(1) Short for Cascading Style Sheets, a new feature being added to HTML that gives both Web site developers and users more control over how pages are displayed. With CSS, designers and users can create style sheets that define how different elements, such as headers and links, appear. These style sheets can then be applied […]
Short for color super-twist nematic, an LCD technology developed by Sharp Electronics Corporation. Unlike TFT, CSTN is based on a passive matrix, which is less expensive to produce. The original CSTN displays developed in the early 90’s suffered from slow response times and ghosting. Recent advances in the technology, however, have made CSTN a viable […]
Short for Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit. The CSU is a device that connects a terminal to a digital line. Typically, the two devices are packaged as a single unit. The dSU is a device that performs protective and diagnostic functions for a telecommunications line. You can think of it as a very high-powered and […]
Short for comma-separated values, another name for the comma-delimited format of data representation.
Short for computer-telephony-integration, which refers to systems that enable a computer to act as a call center, accepting incoming calls and routing them to the appropriate device or person. Today’s CTI systems are quite sophisticated and can handle all sorts of incoming and outgoing communications, including phone calls, faxes, and Internet messages.