Pronounced yoo-niks, a popular multi-user, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Created by just a handful of programmers, UNIX was designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers.
UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a high-level programming language, namely C. This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a C compiler existed. This natural portability combined with its low price made it a popular choice among universities. (It was inexpensive because antitrust regulations prohibited Bell Labs from marketing it as a full-scale product.)
Bell Labs distributed the operating system in its source language form, so anyone who obtained a copy could modify and customize it for his own purposes. By the end of the 1970s, dozens of different versions of UNIX were running at various sites.
After its breakup in 1982, AT&T began to market UNIX in earnest. It also began the long and difficult process of defining a standard version of UNIX.
Due to its portability, flexibility, and power, UNIX has become a leading operating system for workstations. Historically, it has been less popular in the personal computer market.
Today, the trademarked “Unix” and the “Single UNIX Specification” interface are owned by The Open Group. An operating system that is certified by The Open Group to use the UNIX trademark conforms to the Single UNIX Specification.
According to The Open Group’s Web site, “As the owner of the UNIX trademark, The Open Group has separated the UNIX trademark from any actual code stream itself, thus allowing multiple implementations. Since the introduction of the Single UNIX Specification, there has been a single, open, consensus specification that defines the requirements for a conformant UNIX system. There is also a mark, or brand, that is used to identify those products that have been certified as conforming to the Single UNIX Specification, initially UNIX 93, followed subsequently by UNIX 95, UNIX 98 and now UNIX 03. Both the specification and the UNIX trade mark are managed and held in trust for the industry by The Open Group.”
Short for User Operation Prohibitions UOP is a selection on a DVD that has been flagged to prevent certain user actions. For example, a FBI Warning on a DVD cannot be skipped or or fast-forwared by the viewer as a direct result of a UOP.
Short for Unified Process, a a software development process for building object-oriented systems. The Unified Process primarily focuses on Object-Oriented design, using UML as a modeling language. UP combines commonly accepted best practices, such as an iterative lifecycle and risk-driven development, into a cohesive and well-documented description. [Adapted from Iterative Development and The Unified Process […]
(pronounced as separate letters) Short for Universal Product Code, a unique 12-digit number assigned to retail merchandise that identifies both the product and the vendor that sells the product. The UPC on a product typically appears adjacent to its bar code, the machine-readable representation of the UPC. The first six digits of the UPC are […]
- Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
Short for uninterruptible power supply, a power supply that includes a battery to maintain power in the event of a power outage. Typically, a UPS keeps a computer running for several minutes after a power outage, enabling you to save data that is in RAM and shut down the computer gracefully. Many UPSs now offer […]
Short for Uniform Resource Identifier, the generic term for all types of names and addresses that refer to objects on the World Wide Web. A URLis one kind of URI.