once more; another time; anew; in addition:
Will you spell your name again, please?
in an additional case or instance; moreover; besides; furthermore.
on the other hand:
It might happen, and again it might not.
back; in return; in reply:
to answer again.
to the same place or person:
to return again.
again and again, with frequent repetition; often:
They went over the same arguments again and again.
as much again, twice as much:
She earns as much again as I do.
Contemporary Examples

Yossarian’s vainglorious commanders raise the number of required missions and raise them again and again.
David’s Bookclub: Catch-22 David Frum December 28, 2012

again, this reflects a lack of knowledge about the criminal justice system.
Don’t Blame the D.A. Raymond Bonner August 25, 2011

It only shows, once again, that Jalics has indeed decided to forgive Bergoglio for whatever he did and that he wants to move on.
The Pope’s Dirty Past Christopher Dickey March 15, 2013

The other obvious trend at the fair is also good for visitors: Some art is again affordable.
Re-Framing the Art Market Judith H. Dobrzynski February 22, 2009

The protagonists Bernier and Gautier have a duel that again occupies an adrenaline-defying amount of time.
The ‘GOT’ Red Viper and Mountain Duel, and a History of Medieval Trial by Combat Steven Isaac June 2, 2014

Historical Examples

How can I think of any thing except the joy of having found you again?
Hetty’s Strange History Anonymous

“I told him high altitudes and high livin’ would do any man—” again he was silent.
The Spenders Harry Leon Wilson

The boy laid the poster on the table where she could read it again, word for word.
The Coyote James Roberts

The poor devil had consumption, too, and probably he’ll never see them again.
The Spenders Harry Leon Wilson

These tuna may return next year and then again they may not return for ten years.
Tales of Fishes Zane Grey

another or second time; once more; anew: he had to start again
once more in a previously experienced or encountered place, state, or condition: he is ill again, he came back again
in addition to the original amount, quantity, etc (esp in the phrases as much again; half as much again)
(sentence modifier) on the other hand: he might come and then again he might not
besides; also: she is beautiful and, again, intelligent
(archaic) in reply; back: he answered again to the questioning voice
again and again, continuously; repeatedly
(used with a negative) (Caribbean) any more; any longer: I don’t eat pumpkin again
sentence connector
moreover; furthermore: again, it could be said that he is not dead

late Old English agan, from earlier ongean “toward, opposite, against, in exchange for,” from on “on” (see on) + -gegn “against, toward,” compounded for a sense of “lined up facing, opposite,” and “in the opposite direction, returning.” For -gegn, cf. Old Norse gegn “straight, direct;” Danish igen “against;” Old Frisian jen, Old High German gegin, German gegen “against, toward,” entgegen “against, in opposition to.”

In Old English, eft was the main word for “again” (see eftsoons), but this often was strengthened by ongean, which became the principal word by 13c. Norse influence is responsible for the hard -g-. Differentiated from against 16c. in southern writers, again becoming an adverb only, and against taking over as preposition and conjunction, but again clung to all senses in northern and Scottish dialect (where against was not adopted).
In addition to the idiom beginning with
also see:

come again
do something over again
ever and again
every now and again
here someone goes again
now and again
off and on (off again, on again)
over again
something else again
time and time again
you can say that again


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