artificial neural network
(ANN, commonly just “neural network” or “neural net”) A network of many very simple processors (“units” or “neurons”), each possibly having a (small amount of) local memory. The units are connected by unidirectional communication channels (“connections”), which carry numeric (as opposed to symbolic) data. The units operate only on their local data and on the inputs they receive via the connections.
A neural network is a processing device, either an algorithm, or actual hardware, whose design was inspired by the design and functioning of animal brains and components thereof.
Most neural networks have some sort of “training” rule whereby the weights of connections are adjusted on the basis of presented patterns. In other words, neural networks “learn” from examples, just like children learn to recognise dogs from examples of dogs, and exhibit some structural capability for generalisation.
Neurons are often elementary non-linear signal processors (in the limit they are simple threshold discriminators). Another feature of NNs which distinguishes them from other computing devices is a high degree of interconnection which allows a high degree of parallelism. Further, there is no idle memory containing data and programs, but rather each neuron is pre-programmed and continuously active.
The term “neural net” should logically, but in common usage never does, also include biological neural networks, whose elementary structures are far more complicated than the mathematical models used for ANNs.
See Aspirin, Hopfield network, McCulloch-Pitts neuron.
Usenet newsgroup: news:comp.ai.neural-nets.
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See under (def 12). a human being, whether an adult or child: The table seats four persons. a human being as distinguished from an animal or a thing. an individual human being who likes or prefers something specified (used in combination): I’ve never been a cat person. Sociology. an individual human being, especially with reference […]
- Artificial radioactivity
radioactivity introduced into a nonradioactive substance by bombarding the substance with charged particles. artificial radioactivity n. The radioactivity of isotopes that have been artificially produced through the bombardment of naturally occurring isotopes by subatomic particles or by high levels of x-rays or gamma rays. Also called induced radioactivity.
- Artificial reality
. Contemporary Examples They have become prisoners of their own artificial reality, with no easy access to the larger truths outside. Seven Habits of Highly Ineffective Political Parties David Frum October 7, 2013 Historical Examples There is an artificial reality about his works, which is no where else to be met with. Hazlitt on English […]
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the stimulation of natural respiratory functions in persons whose breathing has failed or in newborn infants by artificially forcing air into and out of the lungs. Historical Examples The above method of artificial respiration is also applicable in cases of electric shock, suffocation by gas and smoke. Manual of Military Training James A. Moss Proceed […]