the biochemical instructions that translate the genetic information present as a linear sequence of nucleotide triplets in messenger RNA into the correct linear sequence of amino acids for the synthesis of a particular peptide chain or protein.
Compare , (def 9).
(biochem) the order in which the nitrogenous bases of DNA are arranged in the molecule, which determines the type and amount of protein synthesized in the cell. The four bases are arranged in groups of three in a specific order, each group acting as a unit (codon), which specifies a particular amino acid See also messenger RNA, transfer RNA
genetic code n.
The sequence of nucleotides that is the basis of heredity in the DNA molecule of a chromosome and that specifies the amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins.
The sequence of nucleotides in DNA and RNA that serve as instructions for synthesizing proteins. The genetic code is based on an “alphabet” consisting of sixty-four triplets of nucleotides called codons. The order in which codons are strung together determines the order in which the amino acids for which they code are arranged in a protein.
The code that translates the sequence of nucleotides in genes along the DNA strand into the structure of protein, which, through its action as an enzyme, governs one chemical reaction in the cell. A simple mnemonic is “One gene codes for one protein which runs one reaction.”
Note: All living things share the same genetic code, a fact that represents strong evidence for evolution. Unraveling the genetic code was one of the great scientific achievements of the twentieth century, and it opened the way to genetic engineering.
noun 1. the counseling of individuals with established or potential genetic problems, concerned with inheritance patterns and risks to future offspring. genetic counseling n. The counseling of prospective parents on the probabilities and dangers of inherited diseases occurring in their offspring and on the diagnosis and treatment of such diseases. genetic counseling The counseling of […]
- Genetic counselling
noun 1. the provision of advice for couples with a history of inherited disorders who wish to have children, including the likelihood of having affected children and the course and management of the disorder, etc
- Genetic disorder
genetic disorder A disease or condition caused by an absent or defective gene or by a chromosomal aberration, as in Down Syndrome.
- Genetic dominant
genetic dominant adj. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a pattern of inheritance of an autosomal trait that is expressed by a gene that always manifests itself phenotypically.