[fi-los-uh-fer] /fɪˈlɒs ə fər/

a person who offers views or theories on profound questions in ethics, metaphysics, logic, and other related fields.
a person who is deeply versed in .
a person who establishes the central ideas of some movement, cult, etc.
a person who regulates his or her life, actions, judgments, utterances, etc., by the light of or reason.
a person who is rationally or sensibly calm, especially under trying circumstances.
Obsolete. an alchemist or occult scientist.
a student, teacher, or devotee of philosophy
a person of philosophical temperament, esp one who is patient, wise, and stoical
(formerly) an alchemist or devotee of occult science
a person who establishes the ideology of a cult or movement: the philosopher of the revolution

from Old English philosophe, from Latin philosophus “philosopher,” from Greek philosophos “philosopher, sage, one who speculates on the nature of things and truth,” literally “lover of wisdom,” from philos “loving” (see -phile) + sophos “wise, a sage” (see sophist). Modern form with -r appears early 14c., from an Anglo-French or Old French variant of philosophe, with an agent-noun ending.

Pythagoras was the first who called himself philosophos, instead of sophos, ‘wise man,’ since this latter term was suggestive of immodesty. [Klein]

Philosophy also was used of alchemy in Middle Ages, hence Philosophers’ stone (late 14c., translating Medieval Latin lapis philosophorum, early 12c.), a reputed solid substance supposed by alchemists to change baser metals into gold or silver; also identified with the elixir and thus given the attribute of prolonging life indefinitely and curing wounds and disease. (French pierre philosophale, German der Stein der Weisen).

Someone who engages in philosophy. Some examples of philosophers are Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and Plato.


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  • Philosophes

    [fil-uh-sof, fil-uh-zof; French fee-law-zawf] /ˈfɪl əˌsɒf, ˌfɪl əˈzɒf; French fi lɔˈzɔf/ noun, plural philosophes [fil-uh-sofs, fil-uh-zofs; French fee-law-zawf] /ˈfɪl əˌsɒfs, ˌfɪl əˈzɒfs; French fi lɔˈzɔf/ (Show IPA) 1. any of the popular French intellectuals or social philosophers of the 18th century, as Diderot, Rousseau, or Voltaire. 2. a philosophaster. n. “Enlightenment rationalist and skeptic,” especially […]

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