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a city in and the capital of Serbia, at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers.
a republic in S Europe since 2006; includes the autonomous province of Vojvodina and claims sovereignty over the autonomous province of Kosovo, which has declared itself independent; formerly part of Yugoslavia, in the N part: a former kingdom in S Europe. 34,116 sq. mi. (88,360 sq. km).
Capital: Belgrade.
formerly, a federal republic in S Europe: since 1992 comprised of Serbia and Montenegro; disbanded into independent countries in 2006. 39,449 sq. mi. (102,173 sq. km).
Capital: Belgrade.
Formerly (1918–29) Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. a republic in S Europe on the Adriatic: formed 1918 from the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro and part of Austria-Hungary; a federal republic 1945-91 comprised of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.
Contemporary Examples

Muammar Gaddafi’s 25 Strangest Moments David A. Graham February 22, 2011
The Closeted Revolution: Kiev’s Gays Keep Quiet to Deny Putin a Propaganda Win James Kirchick March 31, 2014
Will Syria Still Exist a Year From Today? Janine di Giovanni May 6, 2013
Pierce Brosnan’s Life After Bond: From Action Hero to Losing His Daughter to Cancer Tim Teeman July 1, 2014
Ratko Mladic Arrested The Daily Beast May 25, 2011

Historical Examples

Great Men and Famous Women. Vol. 2 of 8 Various
The Story of the Great War, Volume II (of VIII) Various
The Birth of Yugoslavia, Volume 2 Henry Baerlein
The Story of the Great War, Volume II (of VIII) Various
Pioneers of the Old South Mary Johnston

the capital of Serbia, in the E part at the confluence of the Danube and Sava Rivers: became the capital of Serbia in 1878, of Yugoslavia in 1929, and later of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006). Pop: 1 280 639 (2002) Serbian name Beograd
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a former country in SE Europe, comprising Serbia and Montenegro, that was formed in 1991 but not widely internationally recognized until 2000; it was replaced by the Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003 (dissolved 2006)
a former country in SE Europe, on the Adriatic: established in 1918 from the independent states of Serbia and Montenegro, and regions that until World War I had belonged to Austria-Hungary (Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina); the name was changed from Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia in 1929; German invasion of 1941–44 was resisted chiefly by a Communist group led by Tito, who declared a people’s republic in 1945; it became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963; in 1991 Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina declared independence, followed by Macedonia in 1992; Serbia and Montenegro formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, subsequently (2003) replaced by the Union of Serbia and Montenegro (dissolved 2006)
a republic in SE Europe: declared a kingdom in 1882; precipitated World War I by the conflict with Austria; became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later called Yugoslavia) in 1918; with Montenegro formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia when the other constituent republics became independent in 1991–92; a Union of Serbia and Montenegro formed in 2003 and dissolved in 2006. The autonomous region of Kosovo (administered by the U.N. following the conflict of 1999) unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia in 2008. Mountainous in the S, with the Danube plains in the N. Religion: Serbian Orthodox majority, with Roman Catholic and Muslim minorities. Currencies: new dinar and euro (in Kosovo). Capital: Belgrade. Pop: 7 243 007 (2013). Area: 88 361 sq km (34 109 sq miles) Former name Servia Serbian name Srbija
Belgrade [(bel-grayd, bel-grahd, bel-grad)]

Note: A union of six republics, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formally declared in 1918; the name was later changed to Yugoslavia.

Note: It was invaded by German troops in 1941 and occupied until 1944. During the German occupation, intense fighting occurred there between rival ethnic factions, especially Croats and Serbs.

Note: It became a communist state under the leadership of Tito and developed its own form of communism, independent of the Soviet Union.

Note: With the collapse of communism in East Europe and the Soviet Union, long-repressed nationalism came to the surface. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia declared their independence, leaving Serbia and Montenegro to form the new, truncated Yugoslavia, known since 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic stirred criticism by giving financial and military support to Serbian minorities in the newly independent republics and by pursuing a policy of ethnic cleansing. In 1995, under pressure from the United Nations and the United States, Milosevic signed a peace agreement with leaders of Bosnia and Croatia in Dayton, Ohio. In the late 1990s, attention shifted to Kosovo, a southern province of Serbia with an ethnic Albanian majority. Seeking independence from Serbia, the Albanian-dominated Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) launched a guerrilla war against Serbian police and officials in Kosovo. When Milosevic ordered a fierce crackdown against the KLA, NATO intervened with air strikes against Serbia, the first military engagement in its history. After heavy air attacks, including attacks on Belgrade, Milosevic agreed to a pullout from Kosovo by the Serbian army. Milosevic was later deposed in an election and sent to the International Court of Justice in The Hague for trial on human-rights abuses.


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