having or forming a boundary or barrier:
He was blocked by a closed door. The house had a closed porch.
brought to a close; concluded:
It was a closed incident with no repercussions.
not public; restricted; exclusive:
a closed meeting; a closed bid at a private auction.
not open to new ideas or arguments.
self-contained; independent or self-sufficient:
a closed, symbiotic relationship.
Phonetics. (of a syllable) ending with a consonant or a consonant cluster, as has, hasp.
Compare (def 35b).
Linguistics. (of a class of items) limited in membership and not readily expanded to include new items, as the class of inflectional affixes, articles, pronouns, or auxiliaries (opposed to ).
Hunting, Angling. restricted as to the kind of game that may be legally taken and as to where or when it may be taken:
woods closed to deer hunters.
[verb klohz; adjective, adverb klohs or for 51, klohz; noun klohz for 59, 60, 63–65, 67, 68, klohs for 61, 62, 66] /verb kloʊz; adjective, adverb kloʊs or for 51, kloʊz; noun kloʊz for 59, 60, 63–65, 67, 68, kloʊs for 61, 62, 66/
verb (used with object), closed, closing.
to put (something) in a position to obstruct an entrance, opening, etc.; shut.
to stop or obstruct (a gap, entrance, aperture, etc.):
to close a hole in a wall with plaster.
to block or hinder passage across or access to:
to close a border to tourists; to close the woods to picnickers.
to stop or obstruct the entrances, apertures, or gaps in:
He closed the crate and tied it up.
(of the mind) to make imperceptive or inaccessible:
to close one’s mind to the opposite opinion.
to bring together the parts of; join; unite (often followed by up):
Close up those ranks! The surgeon closed the incision.
Electricity. to complete (an electrical circuit) by joining the circuit elements:
The circuit was closed so the current could be measured.
to bring to an end:
to close a debate.
to arrange the final details of; to conclude negotiations about:
to close a deal to everyone’s satisfaction.
to complete or settle (a contract or transaction); consummate:
We close the sale of the house next week.
to stop rendering the customary services of:
to close a store for the night.
to terminate or suspend the operation of; to halt the activities of:
The epidemic forced authorities to close the schools. The police closed the bar for selling liquor to minors.
Nautical. to come close to:
We closed the cruiser to put our injured captain on board.
Metalworking. to reduce the internal diameter of (a tube or the like).
Archaic. to shut in or surround on all sides; enclose; cover in:
to close a bird in a cage.
verb (used without object), closed, closing.
to become closed; shut:
The door closed with a bang. This window is stuck and will not close tight.
to come together; unite:
Her lips closed firmly.
to come close:
His pursuers closed rapidly.
to grapple; engage in close encounter (often followed by with):
We closed with the invaders shortly before sundown.
to come to an end; terminate:
The service closed with a hymn.
to cease to offer the customary activities or services:
The school closed for the summer.
to enter into or reach an agreement, usually as a contract:
The builder closed with the contractor after negotiations.
(of a theatrical production) to cease to be performed:
The play closed in New York yesterday and will open in Dallas next week.
(of a stock, group of stocks, etc.) to be priced or show a change in price as specified at the end of a trading period:
The market closed low for the fourth straight day.
adjective, closer, closest.
having the parts or elements near to one another:
a close formation of battleships.
a close texture; a close weave.
being in or having proximity in space or time:
The barn is so close to the house that you can hear the animals. His birthday is in May, close to mine.
marked by similarity in degree, action, feeling, etc.:
This dark pink is close to red. He left her close to tears.
near, or near together, in kind or relationship:
a flower close to a rose; a close relative.
intimate or confidential; dear.
based on a strong uniting feeling of respect, honor, or love:
a close circle of friends.
a close, clinging negligee.
(of a haircut or shave, the mowing of a lawn, etc.) so executed that the hair, grass, or the like is left flush with the surface or very short.
not deviating from the subject under consideration.
strict; searching; minute:
The matter requires close investigation.
not deviating from a model or original:
a close, literal translation.
nearly even or equal:
a close contest.
shut; shut tight; not open:
a close hatch.
shut in; enclosed.
completely enclosing or surrounding:
a close siege preventing all escape.
without opening; with all openings covered or closed.
lacking fresh or freely circulating air:
a hot, close room.
a spell of close, sultry weather.
narrowly confined, as a prisoner.
practicing or keeping secrecy; secretive; reticent:
She is so close that you can tell her all your secrets.
He is very close with his money.
scarce, as money.
not open to public or general admission, competition, etc.:
The entire parish participated in the close communication.
(of a delimiting punctuation mark) occurring at the end of a group of words or characters that is set off, as from surrounding text:
close parentheses; close quotes; close brackets.
Compare (def 32).
Hunting, Angling. (def 8).
Phonetics. (of a vowel) articulated with a relatively small opening between the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
Compare (def 23), (def 35a).
Heraldry. (of a bird) represented as having folded wings:
an eagle close.
Archaic. viscous; not volatile.
in a close manner; closely.
near; close by.
Heraldry. immediately behind the ears, so as to show no neck:
a bear’s head couped close.
the act of closing.
the end or conclusion:
at the close of day; the close of the speech.
an enclosed place or enclosure, especially one about or beside a cathedral or other building.
any piece of land held as private property.
Music. (def 7).
Archaic. a junction; union.
Obsolete. a close encounter; a grapple:
The fighters met in a fierce close.
close in on/upon,
close ranks, to unite forces, especially by overlooking petty differences, in order to deal with an adverse or challenging situation; to join together in a show of unity, especially to the public:
When the newspaper story broke suggesting possible corruption in the government, the politicians all closed ranks.
close to the wind, Nautical. in a direction nearly opposite to that from which the wind is coming:
to sail close to the wind.
blocked against entry; shut
not open to question or debate
(of a hunting season, etc) close
(phonetics) Also checked
not open to public entry or membership: the closed society of publishing
near in space or time; in proximity
having the parts near together; dense: a close formation
down or near to the surface; short: a close haircut
near in relationship: a close relative
intimate or confidential: a close friend
almost equal or even: a close contest
not deviating or varying greatly from a model or standard: a close resemblance, a close translation
careful, strict, or searching: a close study
(of a style of play in football, hockey, etc) characterized by short passes
confined or enclosed
shut or shut tight
oppressive, heavy, or airless: a close atmosphere
strictly guarded: a close prisoner
neat or tight in fit: a close cap
secretive or reticent
miserly; not generous, esp with money
(of money or credit) hard to obtain; scarce
restricted as to public admission or membership
hidden or secluded
Also closed. restricted or prohibited as to the type of game or fish able to be taken
(phonetics) Also closed, narrow. denoting a vowel pronounced with the lips relatively close together
near or in proximity
(nautical) close to the wind, sailing as nearly as possible towards the direction from which the wind is blowing See also wind1 (sense 26)
to put or be put in such a position as to cover an opening; shut: the door closed behind him
(transitive) to bar, obstruct, or fill up (an entrance, a hole, etc): to close a road
to bring the parts or edges of (a wound, etc) together or (of a wound, etc) to be brought together
(intransitive; foll by on, over, etc) to take hold: his hand closed over the money
to bring or be brought to an end; terminate
to complete (an agreement, a deal, etc) successfully or (of an agreement, deal, etc) to be completed successfully
to cease or cause to cease to render service: the shop closed at six
(intransitive) (stock exchange) to have a value at the end of a day’s trading, as specified: steels closed two points down
to complete an electrical circuit
(transitive) (nautical) to pass near
(transitive) (archaic) to enclose or shut in
close one’s eyes
the act of closing
the end or conclusion: the close of the day
a place of joining or meeting
(law) (kləʊs). private property, usually enclosed by a fence, hedge, or wall
(Brit) (kləʊs). a courtyard or quadrangle enclosed by buildings or an entry leading to such a courtyard
(Brit) (capital when part of a street name) (kləʊs). a small quiet residential road: Hillside Close
(Brit) a field
(kləʊs). the precincts of a cathedral or similar building
(Scot) (kləʊs). the entry from the street to a tenement building
(music) another word for cadence
(archaic or rare) an encounter in battle; grapple
c.1200, past participle adjective from close (v.). Closed circuit is attested from 1827; closed shop in union sense from 1904; closed system first recorded 1896 in William James.
c.1200, “to shut, cover in,” from Old French clos- (past participle stem of clore “to shut, to cut off from”), 12c., from Latin clausus, past participle of claudere “to shut, close; to block up, make inaccessible; put an end to; shut in, enclose, confine” (always -clusus, -cludere in compounds).
The Latin word might be from the possible PIE root *klau- “hook, peg, crooked or forked branch” (used as a bar or bolt in primitive structures); cf. Latin clavis “key,” clavus “nail,” claustrum “bar, bolt, barrier,” claustra “dam, wall, barricade, stronghold;” Greek kleidos (genitive) “bar, bolt, key,” klobos “cage;” Old Irish clo “nail,” Middle Irish clithar “hedge, fence;” Old Church Slavonic ključi “hook, key,” ključiti “shut;” Lithuanian kliuti “to catch, be caught on,” kliaudziu “check, hinder,” kliuvu “clasp, hang;” Old High German sliozan “shut,” German schließen “to shut,” Schlüssel “key.”
Also partly from Old English beclysan “close in, shut up.” Intransitive sense “become shut” is from late 14c. Meaning “draw near to” is from 1520s. Intransitive meaning “draw together, come together” is from 1550s, hence the idea in military verbal phrase close ranks (mid-17c.), later with figurative extensions. Meaning “bring to an end, finish” is from c.1400; intransitive sense “come to an end” is from 1826. Of stock prices, from 1860. Meaning “bring together the parts of” (a book, etc.) is from 1560s. Related: Closed; closing.
late 14c., “strictly confined,” also “secret,” from Old French clos “confined; concealed, secret; taciturn” (12c.), from Latin clausus “close, reserved,” past participle adjective from claudere “stop up, fasten, shut” (see close (v.)); main sense shifting to “near” (late 15c.) by way of “closing the gap between two things.” Related: Closely.
Meaning “narrowly confined, pent up” is late 14c. Meaning “near” in a figurative sense, of persons, from 1560s. Meaning “full of attention to detail” is from 1660s. Of contests, from 1855. Close call is from 1866, in a quotation in an anecdote from 1863, possibly a term from the American Civil War; close shave in the figurative sense is 1820, American English. Close range is from 1814. Close-minded is attested from 1818. Close-fisted “penurious, miserly” is from c.1600.
late 14c., “act of closing, conclusion, termination,” from close (v.). Also in early use “enclosure, enclosed space” (late 13c.), from Old French clos, noun use of past participle.
“tightly, with no opening or space between,” from close (adj.).
- Closed anesthesia
closed anesthesia n. Inhalation anesthesia in which there is complete rebreathing of all exhaled gases, except for carbon dioxide, which is removed by the anesthetic apparatus.
- Closed-angle glaucoma
[klohzd-ang-guh l] /ˈkloʊzdˌæŋ gəl/ noun, Pathology. 1. angle-closure glaucoma. See under .
noun 1. something that is not known or cannot be understood; a mystery or puzzle: Abstract art is a closed book as far as I’m concerned. noun 1. something deemed unknown or incapable of being understood 2. a matter that has been finally concluded and admits of no further consideration
- Closed-box testing