Apgar: Abbreviation for the Apgar score, a practical method of evaluating the physical condition of a newborn infant shortly after delivery. The Apgar score is a number arrived at by scoring the heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, skin color, and response to a catheter in the nostril. Each of these objective signs can receive 0, 1, or 2 points.
A perfect Apgar score of 10 means an infant is in the best possible condition. An infant with an Apgar score of 0-3 needs immediate resuscitation.
The Apgar score is done routinely 60 seconds after the birth of the infant and then it is commonly repeated 5 minutes after birth. In the event of a difficult resuscitation, the Apgar score may be done again at 10, 15, and 20 minutes.
An Apgar score of 0-3 at 20 minutes of age is predictive of high morbidity (disease) and mortality (death).
The score is named for the preeminent American anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) who invented the scoring method in 1952. Having assisted at thousands of deliveries, Dr. Apgar wished to focus attention on the baby. Babies were traditionally dispatched directly to the nursery, often without much formal scrutiny after delivery. Apgar wanted the baby to be assessed in an organized meaningful manner by the delivery room personnel. Dr. Apgar was the first woman to be appointed a full professor at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons.
- Apgar score
An objective score of the condition of a baby after birth. This score is determined by scoring the heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, skin color, and response to a catheter in the nostril. Each of these objective signs receives 0, 1, or 2 points. An Apgar score of 10 means an infant is in […]
Aphakia: Absence or loss of the eye’s natural crystalline lens, as after cataract removal. From a-, without + phacos, the Greek word for a lentil bean. The ancients thought (quite correctly) that the lens of the eye was shaped like a lentil bean.
Literally, no speech. Aphasia may also be used to describe defects in spoken expression or comprehension of speech.
The process of removing a specific component from blood temporarily. Also known as hemapheresis and pheresis. Forms of apheresis include plasmapheresis, harvesting plasma or liquid part of the blood; leukapheresis, harvesting leukocytes or white blood cells; granulocytapheresis, harvesting granulocytes; lymphocytapheresis, harvesting lymphocytes; lymphoplasmapheresis, harvesting lymphocytes and plasma; and plateletpheresis, harvesting platelets.
- Aphthous ulcer
Aphthous ulcer: A small sensitive painful ulcer crater in the lining of the mouth. Commonly called a canker sore. Picture of a canker sore Aphthous ulcers are one of the most common problems that occur in the mouth. About 20% of the population (1 in 5 people) have aphthous ulcers at any given time. Aphthous […]