Arhythmia: We do not usually give a misspelling but this is a frequent misspelling of arrhythmia (with two r’s), meaning an abnormal heart rhythm.
In an arrhythmia the heartbeats may be too slow, too rapid, too irregular, or too early. Rapid arrhythmias (greater than 100 beats per minute) are called tachycardias. Slow arrhythmias (slower than 60 beats per minute) are called bradycardias. Irregular heart rhythms are called fibrillations (as in atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation). When a single heartbeat occurs earlier than normal, it is called a premature contraction.
The term arrhythmia comes from the Greek a-, loss + rhythmos, rhythm = loss of rhythm.
Arimidex: Brand name for anastrozole, an oral antiestrogen. Arimidex inhibits the enzyme aromatase in the adrenal glands that produces the estrogens (estradiol and estrone) and thereby lowers their levels. It works by decreasing the amount of estrogen the body makes. This can slow or stop the growth of many types of breast cancer cells that […]
- Aristolochia fangchi
Aristolochia fangchi: A Chinese herb that is injurious to the kidney and is also associated with an increased risk of cancer of the urinary system. Aristolochia can cause kidney failure requiring renal dialysis or a kidney transplant. The tumors reported have included urothelial carcinoma, carcinoma of the ureter, renal pelvis, or both and papillary bladder […]
- Aristolochic acid
Aristolochic acid: Aristolochic acids are a family of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compounds commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants. Aristolochic acid was previously contained in a number of botanical products sold as “traditional medicines” or as dietary supplements or weight-loss remedies. The use of products containing aristolochic acid were found to cause kidney […]
Aristotle: Aristotle of Stagira (384-322 B.C.), Greek philosopher and scientist. The son of a physician, Aristotle was a student of Plato but developed methods of inquiry different from those of his teacher. Unlike Plato, Aristotle felt that one could, and in fact must, trust one’s senses in the investigation of knowledge and reality. Aristotle’s writings […]
Arm: In popular usage, the appendage that extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, the medical definition refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the portion of the elbow, excluding the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist. The arm contains one bone: the humerus.