Bottlefeeding: The practice of feeding an infant a substitute for breast milk. Pediatricians generally advise exclusively breastfeeding (that is, breastfeeding with no supplementary formula) for all full-term, healthy infants for the first 6 months of life. However, many infants are bottlefed today, at least in part. For infants to achieve normal growth and maintain normal health, infant formulas must include proper amounts of water, carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals.
An uncommon, but potentially very serious illness, a type of food poisoning, that produces paralysis of muscles via a nerve toxin called botulinum toxin (“botox”) that is manufactured by bacteria named Clostridium botulinum. There are various types of botulism, including: Food-borne botulism — from eating food that contains the botulinum toxin. Wound botulism — caused […]
Bougie: A thin cylinder of rubber, plastic, metal or another material that a physician inserts into or though a body passageway, such as the esophagus, to diagnose or treat a condition. A bougie may be used to widen a passageway, guide another instrument into a passageway, or dislodge an object. Bougies are available in a […]
Bougienage: A procedure involving the use of a bougie. A bougie is a thin cylinder of rubber, plastic, metal or another material that a physician inserts into or though a body passageway, such as the esophagus, to widen the passageway, guide another instrument into a passageway, or dislodge an object. An alternate spelling of “bougienage” […]
Boutonneuse: Fievre boutonneuse or African tick typhus, one of the tick-borne rickettsial diseases of the eastern hemisphere, similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but less severe, with fever, a small ulcer (tache noire) at the site of the tick bite, swollen glands nearby (satellite lymphadenopathy), and a red raised (maculopapular) rash. The French word “boutonneuse” […]
- Bovine genome
Bovine genome: The genome of the cow (Bos taurus). The bovine genome is similar in size to the genomes of humans and other mammals, containing approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs. The breed of cattle selected for initial sequencing was Hereford, which is used in beef production. Sequencing began in December 2003 and a first […]