Brainstem: The lowest part of the brain which merges with the spinal cord and provides the major route by which the upper realms of the brain send information to, and receives information from, the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The brainstem consists of the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons. All but two of the 12 cranial nerves originate in the brainstem. The brainstem influences basic processes such as alertness, breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate.
- Brainstem implant
Brainstem implant: A type of hearing aid that bypasses the cochlea in the middle ear and the auditory nerve and is implanted in the brainstem. This type of implant helps individuals who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant because the auditory nerves are not working.
- Branchial cleft cyst
Branchial cleft cyst: A cavity that is a remnant from embryologic development and is still present at birth in one side of the neck, just in front of the large angulated muscle on either side (the sternocleidomastoid muscle). The cyst may not be recognized until adolescence, when it enlarges its oval shape. Sometimes a branchial […]
- Branchial cyst
Also called a branchial cleft cyst, this is a cavity that is a remnant from embryologic development present at birth in one side of the neck just in front of the large angulated muscle on either side (the sternocleidomastoid muscle). The cyst may not be recognized until adolescence as it enlarges its oval shape. It […]
- Braxton Hicks contractions
Braxton Hicks contractions: Irregular contractions of the womb (the uterus) occurring towards the middle of pregnancy in the first pregnancy and, earlier and more intensely, in subsequent pregnancies. These contractions tend to occur during physical activity. The uterus tightens for 30 to 60 seconds beginning at the top of the uterus; and the contraction gradually […]
- Brazelton newborn test
Brazelton newborn test: A widely used test of the newborn baby as to their neurologic status and developmental progress. The Brazelton newborn test is formally called the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). However, the NBAS which was devised by the Harvard pediatrician T. Berry Brazelton is better known as “the Brazelton.” There are a number […]