Breslow thickness: A method for determining the prognosis with melanoma. The thickness of a melanoma is related to the 5-year survival rate after surgical removal of the tumor.
Named for the physician Alexander Breslow who in 1975 observed that as the thickness of the tumor increases, the chance of survival goes down. For example, a thickness of the melanoma of less than 1.0 millimeters is associated with a 5-year survival of 97% of patients whereas a tumor thickness of more than 8.0 millimeters is associated with 5-year survival of 32%.
The Breslow thickness has come into wider use than an older system, the Clark level of invasion, a method devised by the pathologist Wallace Clark for measuring the depth of penetration of a melanoma into the skin according to anatomic layer (the epidermis, dermis, and the subcutis) of deepest tumor penetration.
Bridge: A set of one or more false teeth supported by a metal framework, used to replace one or more missing teeth. Bridges may be fixed or removable. A fixed bridge (a partial denture) is a prosthetic replacement of one or more missing teeth; it is cemented (or otherwise attached) to the neighboring teeth or […]
- Bright's disease
Bright’s disease: Chronic inflammation of the blood vessels in the kidney with protein, specifically albumin, in the urine. There are a number of disorders that lead to Bright’s disease. With nothing more sophisticated than a candle and a silver spoon, the English physician Richard Bright (1789-1858) discovered protein in urine and in 1827 published his […]
- Brill-Zinsser disease
Brill-Zinsser disease: Recrudescence of epidemic typhus years after the initial attack. The agent that causes epidemic typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) remains viable for many years and then when host defenses are down, it is reactivated causing recurrent typhus. The disease is named for the physician Nathan Brill and the great bacteriologist Hans Zinsser.
- Brissaud's infantilism
Brissaud’s infantilism: An eponym that is little used (in the USA) for hypothyroidism (subnormal activity of the thyroid gland) that starts after birth and is manifest by features including delays in growth and development and myxedema surfacing during infancy. Myxedema is a dry waxy type of swelling, often with swollen lips and nose. Infantile hypothyroidism […]
- British National Formulary
British National Formulary: A twice-yearly source on prescribing, dispensing and administering medicines, intended primarily for use by physicians, pharmacists, nurses and other health-care professionals in the UK.