Bruce protocol: A standardized multistage treadmill test for assessing cardiovascular health, The test was developed and described in 1963 by the American cardiologist Robert A. Bruce (1916-2004).
According to the original Bruce protocol, the patient walks on an uphill treadmill in a graded exercise test with electrodes on the chest to monitor the EKG. Every 3 minutes, the speed and incline of the treadmill are increased. There are 7 such stages and only very fit athletes can complete all 7 stages.
The modified Bruce protocol is an alteration in the protocol so that the treadmill is initially horizontal rather than uphill, with the first few intervals increasing the treadmill slope only.
The test can detect evidence of angina pectoris (chest pain and discomfort), a previous heart attack, and ventricular aneurysm (bulging in the ventricle of the heart).
Injury of the soft tissues that results in breakage of the local capillaries and leakage of red blood cells. In the skin it can be seen as a reddish-purple discoloration that does not blanch when pressed. When a bruise fades, it becomes green and brown, as the body metabolizes the blood cells in the skin. […]
Bruit: A sound heard over an artery or vascular channel, reflecting turbulence of flow. Most commonly, a bruit is caused by abnormal narrowing of an artery. Listening for a bruit in the neck with a stethoscope is a simple way to screen for narrowing (stenosis) of the carotid artery, which can be a result of […]
- Brunhilde virus
Brunhilde virus: Type 1 poliovirus. Named after a female chimpanzee from which it was first isolated. There are two other strains of poliovirus: Type 2 (known as the Lansing virus) and Type 3 (known as the Leon virus). Immunity to one strain does not provide protection against the other two. All three strains are therefore […]
- Brushfield's spots
Brushfield’s spots: Speckled iris. Little white spots that slightly elevated on the surface of the iris arranged in a ring concentric with the pupil. These spots occur in normal children but are far more frequent in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21). They were described in 1924 by Thomas Brushfield and are due to aggregation of a […]
- Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase
Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase: A genetic type of immunodeficiency characterized by failure to produce mature B lymphocytes and gamma globulin, due to mutation (change) in the agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase gene situated on the X chromosome (in the region Xq21.3-q22). The disorder is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Patients are males with absent or minimal […]