Surgery that removes the foreskin (the loose tissue) covering the glans of the penis. Circumcision may be performed for religious, cultural reasons or health reasons. Newborn circumcision diminishes the risk for cancer of the penis and lowers the risk for cancer of the cervix in sexual partners. It also decreases the risk of urinary tract infections and lowers the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV.
The Latin “circum-” means around (or about). Circumcision is, literally, a cutting around. Circumcision dates back to prehistoric times. It is one of the oldest surgical operations known to have been performed by ancient people.
Circumflex: Curved like a bow. In anatomy, circumflex describes a structure that bends around like a bow. For example, the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. In linguistics, a circumflex is a caret-shaped mark (^) used over a vowel to indicate the pronunciation, length or the omission of a letter formerly pronounced. In French, […]
Circumjacent: Lying around in the sense of surrounding. Related terms include superjacent, subjacent, and adjacent. From circum-, around + the Latin jacere, to lie = to lie around.
Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatitis, including both hepatitis B and hepatitis C, are among the many causes of cirrhosis. Cirrhosis can cause yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue. Diagnosis is suggested by physical examination and blood tests, and it can be confirmed by liver biopsy. Complications of […]
- Cirrhosis and gray matter degeneration
Cirrhosis with diffuse degeneration of cerebral gray matter, Alpers: A progressive disease of the nervous system characterized by spasticity (tightness), myoclonus and dementia and by liver problems with jaundice and cirrhosis. This disorder, first described by Alpers in 1931 as “Diffuse progressive degeneration of gray matter of cerebrum”, usually begins early in life with convulsions. […]
Cisplatin: An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called platinum compounds. Cisplatin is used in the treatment of a wide range of malignancies, including advanced cancer of the ovary, testis, and bladder. Cisplatin is given intravenously. Its full chemical name is cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum.