Clasped thumbs and mental retardation: A syndrome with the following characteristic features: (1) neurologically: mental retardation and aphasia (lack of speech); (2) limbs: adducted (clasped) thumbs, absent extensor pollicis longus and/or brevis muscles to the thumb, shuffling gait, and leg spasticity; (3) growth: small body size; (4) skeleton: lumbar lordosis (sway back). The syndrome is inherited as an X-linked trait and so affects mainly boys. Alternative names include MASA syndrome (MASA stands for mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs), adducted thumb with mental retardation, congenital clasped thumb with mental retardation, and the Gareis-Mason syndrome.
Limping. From the Latin claudicare, which means ‘to limp.’ The Roman emperor Claudius was so named because he limped, probably because of a birth defect.
- Claudication, intermittent
Pain in the calf that comes and goes, typically felt while walking, and usually subsiding with rest. Intermittent claudication can be due to temporary artery narrowing due to vasospasm, permanent artery narrowing due to atherosclerosis, or complete occlusion of an artery to the leg. The prognosis is generally favorable because the condition often stabilizes or […]
Claustrophobia: An abnormal and persistent fear of closed spaces, of being closed in or being shut in, as in elevators, tunnels, or any other confined space. The fear is excessive (and quite common). The word “claustrophobia” is an amalgam made from the Latin “claudere”, to shut + the Greek “phobis”, fear.
- Claudication, venous
Claudication, venous: Limping and/or pain resulting from inadequate venous drainage.
Clavus: Synonymous with corns. The word “clavus” is the Latin word for nail.