Cloning, cell: The process of producing a group of cells (clones), all genetically identical, from a single ancestral cell.
- Cloning, DNA
Cloning, DNA: The use of DNA manipulation procedures to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA.
- Cloning, therapeutic
Cloning, therapeutic: Cloning designed as therapy for a disease. In therapeutic cloning, the nucleus of a cell, typically a skin cell, is inserted into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed. The nucleated egg begins to divide repeatedly to form a blastocyst. Scientists then extract stem cells from the blastocyst and use them to […]
Clonote: The first cell produced by the combination of a nucleus and an enucleated ovum that launches the process of somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). As opposed to the zygote, the first cell resulting from fertilization. The term “clonote” was coined to connote the fundamental difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. IVF (and the […]
Clostridium: A group of anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that thrive in the absence of oxygen). There are 100+ species of Clostridium. They include, for examples, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens (also called Clostridium welchii), and Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of infection of the large bowel (the colon) in the US […]
- Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum: A group of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in the soil that grow best in anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) conditions. The bacteria form heat-resistant spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum toxin, a highly potent […]