Coding DNA: A sequence of DNA that codes for protein. Coding DNA sequences are separated by long regions of DNA called introns that have no apparent function. Coding DNA is also known as an exon.
Codon: A set of any three adjacent bases in DNA or RNA. There are 64 different codons, of which 61 specify the incorporation of an amino acid into a polypeptide chain; the remaining 3 are stop codons, which signal the ends of polypeptides.
- Coefficient of inbreeding
Coefficient of inbreeding: A measure of how close two people are genetically to each another. The coefficient of inbreeding, symbolized by the letter F, is the probability that a person with two identical genes received both genes from one ancestor. Take a first-cousin mating. First cousins share a set of grandparents. For any particular gene […]
Coenzyme: A substance that enhances the action of an enzyme. (An enzyme is a protein that functions as a catalyst to mediate and speed a chemical reaction). Coenzymes are small molecules. They cannot by themselves catalyze a reaction but they can help enzymes to do so. In technical terms, coenzymes are organic nonprotein molecules that […]
- Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10: A compound needed for the proper functioning of an enzyme, a protein that speeds up the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the body. Coenzyme Q10 is used to produce energy to fuel cell growth and maintenance. Coenzyme Q10 is thought to improve the function of mitochondria, the “powerhouses” that produce […]
- Coffin-Lowry syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome: An X-linked form of mental retardation in which the affected males have short stature and characteristic face, finger and skeletal abnormalities. Facial features include prominent forehead, widespread eyes, downslanting eyeslits, prominent ears, thick lips and irregular/missing teeth. The hands are large and soft with lax skin and tapering fingers. Skeletal changes include kyphosis/scoliosis […]