Coffin-Lowry syndrome: An X-linked form of mental retardation in which the affected males have short stature and characteristic face, finger and skeletal abnormalities. Facial features include prominent forehead, widespread eyes, downslanting eyeslits, prominent ears, thick lips and irregular/missing teeth. The hands are large and soft with lax skin and tapering fingers. Skeletal changes include kyphosis/scoliosis and pectus carinatum (pigeon breast) or pectus excavatum (caved-in chest). The syndrome is due to mutation of the gene on the X chromosome that encodes RSK2, a growth-factor regulated protein kinase.
Coeval: Of the same or equal age or duration. For example, the two elderly men were coeval with one another. Coeval usually refers to coexistence for a very long time. “Coeval” comes from the Latin “coaevus” meaning “of the same age.” “Coaevus” is derived from the prefix “co-“(“in or to the same degree”) and “aevum” […]
- Cogan corneal dystrophy
Cogan corneal dystrophy: A disorder in which the cornea shows grayish fingerprint lines, geographic map-like lines, and dots (or microcysts). These lines and dots can be seen on examination with a slit-lamp, which focuses a high-intensity light beam through a slit while the examiner uses a magnifying scope to look at the front of the […]
- Cogan syndrome
Cogan syndrome: A rare form of artery inflammation (arteritis) of unknown cause that affects the ear. Cogan syndrome causes problems of hearing and balance and also inflammation of the cornea and often fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Joint and muscle pains can also be present. Less frequently, the arteritis can involve blood vessels elsewhere in […]
Cognition: The process of knowing. Cognition includes both awareness and judgment.
- Cognitive behavior therapy
Cognitive behavior therapy: A therapeutic practice that helps patients recognize and remedy dysfunctional thought patterns. One characteristic technique is exposure and response prevention, in which a patient with a phobia deliberately exposes himself or herself to the feared situation, gradually decreasing the panic response. Cognitive behavior therapy is used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, […]