Cogan syndrome: A rare form of artery inflammation (arteritis) of unknown cause that affects the ear. Cogan syndrome causes problems of hearing and balance and also inflammation of the cornea and often fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Joint and muscle pains can also be present. Less frequently, the arteritis can involve blood vessels elsewhere in the body, as in the skin, kidneys, nerves, and other tissues and organs. Cogan syndrome can lead to deafness or blindness. Treatment is directed toward stopping the inflammation of the blood vessels. Cortisone-related medications, such as prednisone, are often used. Severe disease can require immunosuppression medications, such as cyclophosphamide.
Cognition: The process of knowing. Cognition includes both awareness and judgment.
- Cognitive behavior therapy
Cognitive behavior therapy: A therapeutic practice that helps patients recognize and remedy dysfunctional thought patterns. One characteristic technique is exposure and response prevention, in which a patient with a phobia deliberately exposes himself or herself to the feared situation, gradually decreasing the panic response. Cognitive behavior therapy is used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, […]
- Cognitive science
Cognitive science: The study of the mind. Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary science that draws on many fields, including neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics. The purpose of cognitive science is to develop models that help explain human perception, thinking, and learning with the premise that the mind is an information processor. […]
- Cognitive therapy
Cognitive therapy: A relatively short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally. Cognitive therapy focuses on present thinking, behavior, and communication rather than on past experiences and is oriented toward problem solving. Cognitive therapy has been applied to a broad range of problems […]
Cohort: In a clinical research trial, a group of study participants or patients.