Ductular hypoplasia, syndromatic hepatic: Also called Alagille syndrome or arteriohepatic dysplasia, this is a genetic disorder characterized by jaundice in the newborn period, liver disease with cholestasis, peripheral pulmonic stenosis and unusual face. Children with Alagille syndrome usually present with jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes) in the newborn period. Cholestasis (stagnant flow of bile from the liver) then develops with puritis (itching), stools without the usual yellowing brown color, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Peripheral pulmonic stenosis is a form of congenital heart disease (CHD). Other types of CHD also occur. The face has deep-set eyes, broad forehead, long nose with flat tip, prominence of the chin, and low-set or malformed ears. The outlook depends upon the degree of severity of the CHD and the liver disease (it can cause liver failure). The condition is an autosomal dominant trait meaning that the gene for it is on a non-sex chromosome (an autosome) and a single edition of the Alagille gene is sufficient to produce the disease. The gene has been discovered on chromosome 20 in band 20p12. The syndrome was first described by D. Alagille in the French medical literature in 1969.
- Ductus arteriosus
Ductus arteriosus: A short vessel through which blood headed from the heart via the pulmonary artery to the lungs is shunted before birth. This blood is shunted away from the lungs and returned to the aorta. When the shunt is open, it is said to be patent. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) usually closes at […]
- Ductus, patent
Ductus, patent: Failure for the ductus arteriosus, an arterial shunt in fetal life, to close on schedule. Before birth, blood pumped from the heart through the pulmonary artery toward the lungs is shunted into the aorta. This arterial shunt is a short vessel called the ductus arteriosus. When the shunt is open, it is said […]
- Due date
Due date: The estimated calendar date when a baby is due to be born. Also called the estimated date of confinement (EDC).
- Dumdum fever
Dumdum fever: Also called kala-azar, a chronic, potentially fatal parasitic disease of the viscera (the internal organs) due to infection by an agent called Leishmania donovani. Leishmania donovani is transmitted by sandfly bites in parts of Asia (primarily India), Africa (primarily Sudan) and South America (primarily Brazil) where all together there are an estimated half […]
Dummy: In science experiments, a substance without any active ingredient, a placebo. In the UK, a pacifier: an artificial nipple, usually made of plastic, upon which an infant can suck.