Dumdum fever: Also called kala-azar, a chronic, potentially fatal parasitic disease of the viscera (the internal organs) due to infection by an agent called Leishmania donovani.
Leishmania donovani is transmitted by sandfly bites in parts of Asia (primarily India), Africa (primarily Sudan) and South America (primarily Brazil) where all together there are an estimated half million cases per year. There are also several hundred cases yearly in Europe (primarily in the Mediterranean region) and a few in North America.
The infection can cause no or few symptoms but typically it is associated with fever, loss of appetite (anorexia), fatigue, enlargement of the liver, spleen and nodes and suppression of the bone marrow. The disease also increases the risk of other secondary infections. The first oral drug found to be effective for treating it is miltefosine.
The term “kala-azar” comes from India where it is the Hindi for black fever. The disease is also known as Indian leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leishmania infection, black sickness, and black fever. The name “Leishmania donovani” honors two men: the British pathologist William Boog Leishman who in 1903 wrote about the protozoa that causes kala-azar and the researcher C. Donovan, who made the same discovery independently the same year.
Dummy: In science experiments, a substance without any active ingredient, a placebo. In the UK, a pacifier: an artificial nipple, usually made of plastic, upon which an infant can suck.
- Dumping syndrome
Dumping syndrome: A group of symptoms, including cramps, nausea, diarrhea, and dizziness, that occur when food or liquid enters the small intestine too rapidly.
Duodenal: Pertaining to the duodenum, part of the small intestine. As in duodenal ulcer or duodenal biliary drainage.
- Duodenal biliary drainage
A procedure used to diagnose gallstones when suspicion is high but other tests are negative. A thin tube is passed through a nostril down the throat, through the esophagus and stomach, into the duodenum. Once the tube is in place, a synthetic hormone related to cholecystokinin is injected IV. It causes the gallbladder to contract […]
- Duodenal ulcer
Duodenal ulcer: A crater (ulcer) in the lining of the beginning of the small intestine (duodenum). Ulcer formation is caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori. Other factors predisposing a person to ulcers include anti-inflammatory medications and cigarette smoking. Ulcer pain may not correlate with the presence or severity of ulceration. Diagnosis is made with barium […]