Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: Abbreviated ERCP. A procedure done to diagnose and treat problems in the bile ducts for example gallstones stuck in bile ducts, inflammatory strictures (scars), leaks (from trauma and surgery),bile duct and pancreatic duct cancer. ERCP combines the use of x-rays and an endoscope (a long, flexible, lighted tube). Through it, the physician can see the inside of the stomach and duodenum and inject dye into the bile ducts and pancreas so they can be seen on x-ray. ERCP takes 30 minutes to 2 hours. Possible complications of ERCP include pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), infection, bleeding, and perforation of the duodenum.
For the procedure, the patient lies on the left side on an examining table in an x-ray room. Medication is given to help numb the back of the throat and a sedative or anesthetic is usually given to help sleep during the exam. The patient is sedated when the physician then guides the scope through the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum until it reaches the spot where the ducts of the biliary tree and pancreas open into the duodenum. The physician then passes a small plastic tube called cannula through the scope into the opening. Through the cannula , the physician will inject a dye into the ducts to make them show up clearly on x-rays. X-rays are taken as soon as the dye is injected.
If the exam shows a gallstone or narrowing of the ducts, the physician can insert instruments into the scope to remove or relieve the obstruction by placing a stent. Also, tissue samples (biopsy) can be taken for further testing.
There may be some discomfort when the physician blows air into the duodenum and injects the dye into the ducts. After the procedure, the patient needs to stay at the hospital for 1 to 2 hours until the sedative wears off. If any kind of treatment is done during ERCP, such as removing a gallstone, the patient may need to stay in the hospital overnight.
- Endoscopic sphincterotomy
Endoscopic sphincterotomy: An operation to cut the muscle between the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. The operation uses a catheter and a wire to remove gallstones or other blockages. Also called endoscopic papillotomy.
- Endoscopic ultrasound
the staging of cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, rectum, and lung; evaluating chronic pancreatitis and other masses or cysts of the pancreas; studying bile duct abnormalities including stones in the bile duct or gallbladder, or bile duct, gallbladder, or liver tumors; studying the muscles of the lower rectum and anal canal in evaluating reasons […]
Examination of the inside of the body by using a lighted, flexible instrument called an endoscope. In general, an endoscope is introduced into the body through a natural opening such as the mouth or anus. Although endoscopy can include examination of other organs, the most common endoscopic procedures evaluate the esophagus, stomach, and portions of […]
- Endoscopy, upper
A procedure that enables the examiner (usually a gastroenterologist) to examine the esophagus, the stomach, and the first portion of small bowel (duodenum) by using a thin, flexible tube that can be looked through or seen through on a TV monitor. Also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
Endostatin: A fragment of a protein, collagen 18, that is found in all blood vessels. Endostatin is normally secreted by blood vessels in response to tumors. Endostatin appears to halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis), which is necessary to tumor development.