Genetic transposition: The ability of genes to change position on chromosomes, a process in which a transposable element is removed from one site and inserted into a second site in the DNA. Genetic transposition was the first type of genetic instability to be discovered.
This remarkable phenomenon was discovered by the great American geneticist Barbara McClintock (1902-1992) who won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.” McClintock did her pioneering research in a plant (maize) decades earlier, at a time when the genetic code and the structure of the DNA double helix were not yet known. This type of element has now been found in microorganisms, insects, animals and man and has been demonstrated to have important functions.
Genetics: The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other organisms. So, for example, there is human genetics, mouse genetics, fruit fly genetics, etc. Human genetics today comprises a number of overlapping fields, including: Classical or formal genetics — the study of the transmission of single genes within families and the analysis […]
- Genetics, transplantation
Genetics, transplantation: The field of biology and medicine relating to the genes that govern the acceptance or rejection of a transplant. The most important genes deciding the fate of a transplanted cell, tissue, or organ belong to what is termed the MHC (the major histocompatibility complex). The MHC was first identified through tumor transplantation studies […]
- Genital herpes
Genital herpes: An infection by human herpes virus that is transmitted through intimate contact with the moist mucous linings of the genitals. This contact can involve the mouth, the vagina, or the genital skin. Following infection, the virus travels to nerve roots near the spinal cord and settles there permanently. When an infected person has […]
Genital: Pertaining to the external and/or internal organs of reproduction.
- Genital wart
Genital wart: A wart in the moist skin of the genitals or around the anus. Genital warts are due to a human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPVs, including those that cause genital warts, are transmitted through sexual contact. HPV can also be transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth. Most people infected with HPV have no […]