Genomic segment: A region of the genome; it encompasses objects described as loci or probes. Genomic segments can range in size from points to regions as large as an entire chromosome.
There are many types of genomic regions. On a technical level, they include genes, gene elements, amplimers (PCR markers), breakpoints in chromosomes, clones, cytogenetic markers, fragile sites on chromosomes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), syndromic regions, contigs and DNA repeats.
Genomics: The study of genes and their function. Genomics aims to understand the structure of the genome, including the mapping genes and sequencing the DNA. Genomics examines the molecular mechanisms and the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in disease. Genomics includes: Functional genomics — the characterization of genes and their mRNA and protein products. […]
- Genomics, structural
Genomics, structural: The study of the proteome, the three-dimensional structures of all of the proteins produced by a species. In the Human Genome Project, the sequence of all the DNA in our genome was largely deciphered. Structural genomics aims to achieve a comparable degree of understanding of the proteome.
Genoplasty: A technology that uses the repair mechanisms normally present in cells to repair gene defects. In genoplasty, a short oligonucleotide fragment is introduced into the cell to simulate a normal DNA sequence and this deceives the cell into repairing itself. The sequence of the gene itself is thus changed permanently. Genoplasty is different from […]
Genotoxin: A poisonous substance which damages DNA. A genotoxin can cause mutations in DNA (and so be a mutagen), it can trigger cancer (and so be a carcinogen), or it can cause a birth defect (and so be a teratogen). From geno- (genetic) + toxin (poison) = a genetic poison.
Genotype: The genetic constitution (genome) of a cell, an individual, or an organism. The genotype is distinct from the expressed features, or phenotype, of the cell, individual, or organism. The genotype of a person is that person’s genetic makeup. It can pertain to all genes or to a specific gene.