A hormone that predominantly affects the metabolism of carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, fats and proteins (and has other effects). Glucocorticoids are made in the outside portion (the cortex) of the adrenal gland and chemically classed as steroids. Cortisol is the major natural glucocorticoid. The term glucocorticoid also applies to equivalent hormones synthesized in the laboratory.
A molecule derived from the sugar glucose by the addition of an amino group. Glucosamine is a component of a number of structures, including the blood group substances and cartilage. Glucosamine is currently in use as a nutritional supplement (often in combination with chondroitin) and is touted as a remedy for arthritic symptoms.
The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the blood and is the main sugar that the body manufactures. The body makes glucose from all three elements of food’protein, fats, and carbohydrates’but the largest amount of glucose derives from carbohydrates. Glucose serves as the major source of energy for […]
- Glucose tolerance test
A test of carbohydrate metabolism that is used primarily in the diagnosis of type II diabetes and gestational diabetes. Abbreviated GTT. After the patient has fasted overnight, but before breakfast, a specific amount of glucose is given by mouth, and the blood levels of this sugar are measured every 30’60 minutes. The GTT result depends […]
- Glucose tolerance, impaired
Impaired glucose tolerance.
- Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
Deficiency of G6PD is the commonest disease-causing enzyme defect in humans affecting an estimated 400 million people. The G6PD gene is on the X chromosome. Males with the enzyme deficiency develop anemia due to breakup of their red blood cells when they are exposed to oxidant drugs such as the antimalarial primaquine, the sulfonamide antibiotics […]