A technique for shattering a kidney stone or gallstone with a shock wave that is produced outside the body. Anesthesia may be necessary to control the pain, depending on the size and density of the stone and on the energy of the shock wave needed to break it up. The urologist may opt to place a catheter (stent) in the ureter from below to facilitate passage of the shattered fragments. Abbreviated ESWL.
- Lithotripsy, percutaneous nephro- (PNL)
A technique for removing large and/or dense stones and staghorn stones. PNL is done via a port created by puncturing the kidney through the skin and enlarging the access port to 1 cm (about 3/8 inch) in diameter. There is no surgical incision. PNL is done under anesthesia and real-time live x-ray control (fluoroscopy). Because […]
- Interventional radiologist
A radiologist who uses image guidance methods to gain access to vessels and organs. Interventional radiologists can treat certain conditions through the skin (percutaneously) that might otherwise require surgery. The technology includes the use of balloons, catheters, microcatheters, stents, and therapeutic embolization (deliberately clogging up a blood vessel). The specialty of interventional radiology overlaps with […]
A machine that is used to shatter kidney stones and gallstones by physical or other means, such as with shock waves.
A pigment used as a test for acidity and alkalinity. Litmus paper turns red in acid and blue in an alkaline solution. Litmus is prepared from lichens like Roccella tinctoria. Figuratively, a litmus test is a decision in which a single factor is the determinant.
- Litmus test
Litmus. 2. Figuratively, any test in which a single factor is decisive.