The meniscus is a c-shaped cartilage pad between the two joints formed by the femur and tibia. The meniscus acts as a smooth surface for the joint to move on. The knee joint is surrounded by fluid-filled sacs called bursae, which serve as gliding surfaces that reduce friction of the tendons. Below the kneecap, there is a large tendon (patellar tendon) which attaches to the front of the tibia bone. There are large blood vessels passing through the area behind the knee (referred to as the popliteal space).
The large muscles of the thigh move the knee. In the front of the thigh the quadriceps muscles extend the knee joint. In the back of the thigh, the hamstring muscles flex the knee. The knee also rotates slightly under guidance of specific muscles of the thigh.
The knee functions to allow movement of the leg and is critical to normal walking. The knee flexes (bends) normally to a maximum of 135 degrees and extends (straightens) to 0 degrees. The bursae, or fluid-filled sacs, serve as gliding surfaces for the tendons to reduce the force of friction as these tendons move. The knee is a weight-bearing joint. Each meniscus serves to evenly load the surface during weight- bearing and also adds in disbursing joint fluid for joint lubrication.
Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, a member of the small inducible gene (SIG) family, plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes to sites of injury and infection. The gene for MCP1 is on chromosome 17 in region 17q11.2-q12. MPC1 has been found in the joints of people with rheumatoid arthritis where may serve to recruit macrophages […]
Membrane cofactor protein. A ubiquitous protein on the surface of cells that regulates complement and is involved in the attachment and ingestion of foreign particles by neutrophils and macrophages. The gene for MCP is on chromosome 1q32.
Abbreviation standing for mixed connective tissue disease.
Abbreviation for mean cell volume, the average volume of a red blood cell. This is a calculated value derived from the hematocrit and the red cell count (The hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of red cells to the volume of whole blood while the red cell count is the number of red blood […]
Abbreviation for the Latin Medicinae Doctor, Doctor of Medicine.