Surgical procedures that maintain, restore, or enhance the human voice. Phonosurgery includes phonomicrosurgery (microsurgery of the vocal folds done through an endoscope), laryngoplastic phonosurgery (open-neck surgery that restructures the cartilaginous framework of the larynx and the soft tissues), laryngeal injection (injection into the larynx of medications as well as synthetic and organic biologic substances), and reinnervation (restoration of the nerve supply) of the larynx. The term “phonosurgery” was coined in the early 1960s.
- Phosphatase, acid
An enzyme that acts to liberate phosphate under acidic conditions and is made in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and prostate gland. Abnormally high serum levels of acid phosphatase may indicate infection, injury, or cancer of the prostate.
- Phosphatase, alkaline
An enzyme that liberates phosphate under alkaline conditions and is made in liver, bone, and other tissues. Alkaline phosphatase can be measured in a routine blood test. Abnormally high serum levels of alkaline phosphatase may indicate bone disease, liver disease, or bile duct obstruction.
A form of phosphoric acid. Calcium phosphate makes bones and teeth hard.
An enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of a phospholipid molecule by the addition of water. Also called a lecithinase. There are a number of phospholipases. They are grouped on the basis of the specific chemical bond they split. The phospholipases include phospholipase A1 (PLA1), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase C, and phospholipase D.
An essential element in the diet and a major component of bone.