An enzyme that permits brain cells to function normally. Pin1 may also protect against Alzheimer’s disease. The enzyme is clearly involved in regulating mitosis (cell division). The Pin1 level in the brains of Alzheimer patients is greatly reduced as compared to age-matched normal brains. The depletion of Pin1 may induce mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death in the brain and hence contribute to Alzheimer’s disease. The Pin1 gene is on chromosome 19 in band 19p13. Pin1 is also known as poly1 isomerase or peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase.
- Pineal gland
A small gland that is located near the center of the brain. This gland secretes melatonin, and it may therefore be part of the body’s sleep-regulation apparatus. Also known as pineal body.
- Pineal region tumor
A brain tumor on or near the pineal gland. There are multiple types of pineal gland tumors, most of which are not cancerous but can nonetheless cause extreme distress. Diagnosis is made via biopsy of affected tissue. Benign pineal tumors are treated with surgery; malignant tumors may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.
An uncommon slow-growing tumor of the pineal gland. Also known as a pinealocytoma and pineocytoma.
- Pinel system
The policy of treating the mentally ill in hospitals and other institutions humanely and without the use of forcible restraints of any type. Named for the great French psychiatrist, Philippe Pinel (1745-1826), who was named director of the Bic�tre Hospital in 1793 and shortly thereafter director of the Salp�triere Hospital, also in Paris, and who […]
A fast-growing brain tumor in the pineal gland that originates in neuroepithelial cells. This malignancy is considered by many to be one of the primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). Also known as pinealoblastoma.