Postulates, Koch’s

It has acquired extra virulence factors making it pathogenic.
It gains access to deep tissues via trauma, surgery, an IV line, etc.
It infects an immunocompromised patient.
Not all people infected by a bacteria may develop disease-subclinical infection is usually more common than clinically obvious infection.

Despite such limitations, Koch’s postulates are still a useful benchmark in judging whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between a bacteria (or any other type of microorganism) and a clinical disease.

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