A chronic disorder of the liver of uncertain cause in which the bile ducts within and outside of the liver become inflamed, thickened, scarred (sclerotic), and obstructed. This progressive process can in time destroy the bile ducts and lead to cirrhosis. Abbreviated PSC. PSC can occur by itself or in association with other diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. PSC often triggers jaundice (yellowing), pruritus (generalized itching all over the body), upper abdominal pain, and infection. Later on, PSC progresses to cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure, creating a need for liver transplantation. Diagnosis is made via clinical observation and routine laboratory tests and is confirmed through demonstration of thickened bile ducts, using special radiologic tests called cholangiography. Treatment includes cholestyramine to diminish itching, antibiotics for infection, vitamin D and calcium to prevent bone loss (osteoporosis), sometimes balloon dilatation or surgery for obstructed ducts, and liver transplantation when necessary and possible. The prognosis depends on the age of the person, the degree of jaundice, the stage of PSC found via liver biopsy, and the size of the spleen. Most patients die within 10 years of diagnosis unless a liver transplant is performed. Also known as idiopathic sclerosing cholangitis.
- Primary teeth
The first teeth which are shed and replaced by permanent teeth. The first primary tooth comes in at about 6 months of age and the 20th and last primary tooth erupts at around 2 1/2 years of age. The primary teeth are replaced beginning usually at about age 6. Also called baby teeth, milk teeth, […]
- Primary tumor
A tumor that is at the original site where it first arose. For example, a primary brain tumor is one that arose in the brain as opposed to one that arose elsewhere and metastasized (spread) to the brain. The original tumor is sometimes called “the primary.”
- Primitive neuroectodermal tumor
Ewing tumor of bone; extraosseus Ewing tumor (tumor growing outside of the bone); primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), also known as peripheral neuroepithelioma; and Askin tumor (PNET of the chest wall).
In embryology, organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development. Take, for example, the thyroid primordium. The plural is primordia. Borrowed directly from the Latin primordium (to begin), derived from the Latin words primus (first) + ordiri (to begin). Known also as the anlage or rudiment.
- Primum non nocere
The Latin words for medical slogan “First do no harm,” a fundamental medical precept of Hippocrates (ca. 460-ca.377 B.C.).